In the world of angling and fishing, sauger and walleye are often mentioned in the same breath. They both belong to the Percidae family and exhibit many similar traits, making it challenging for anglers and enthusiasts to tell them apart. However, upon closer examination, several key differences emerge.
In this comprehensive comparison article, we will explore the differences between sauger and walleye, shedding light on their physical features, habitat, behavior, and culinary qualities. By the end of this article, you will have a clear understanding of these two fascinating fish and be able to differentiate between them with ease.
Table of Contents
Sauger vs Walleye: Key Differences
Sauger and walleye are two closely related species of fish that are highly prized by anglers and valued for their delicious flesh. While they share some similarities, there are distinct differences between the two species. Here is an overview of sauger and walleye:
- Coloration: Sauger have a dark brown or olive-colored back with distinct dark spots and irregular saddle-like markings along their sides. In contrast, walleye have a more golden or olive-colored back and sides, often accompanied by a mottled pattern. Walleye also have a white belly and a distinct white tip on the lower lobe of their caudal fin.
- Size: Sauger typically grow between 12 to 17 inches in length and can weigh up to 3 pounds. On the other hand, walleye can reach lengths of 20 to 30 inches and can weigh up to 10 pounds or more. Walleye generally have a larger size compared to sauger.
- Distribution: Sauger are primarily found in North America, particularly in the Mississippi River drainage and its tributaries, including the Ohio, Missouri, and Tennessee rivers. They are less widely distributed compared to walleye. Walleye, on the other hand, have a broader distribution across North America, inhabiting lakes, rivers, and reservoirs in various regions.
- Habitat Preference: Sauger prefer freshwater rivers with moderate to fast currents and sand or gravel bottoms. They are often associated with structures such as submerged rocks, logs, and bridge piers. Walleye are adaptable and can thrive in a variety of freshwater environments, including lakes, rivers, and reservoirs. They prefer clear or moderately turbid waters with gravel or sandy bottoms and are often found near submerged structures such as rocky points and drop-offs.
- Spawning Behavior: Sauger spawn in early spring when water temperatures rise. They typically spawn in shallow, fast-flowing areas of rivers or streams. The male sauger guards the adhesive eggs until they hatch, and the fry then drift downstream. Walleye also spawn in early spring, but they prefer rocky or gravelly areas in rivers or shoals in lakes. Walleye eggs are also adhesive and attach to submerged surfaces. The young walleye stay near the spawning grounds until they reach a certain size.
- Conservation Status: Sauger populations face conservation concerns due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and changes in water quality. Walleye populations are generally considered stable, although localized declines can occur. Conservation efforts focus on sustainable fishing practices, habitat conservation, and public awareness for both species.
These key differences in coloration, size, distribution, habitat preference, spawning behavior, and conservation status help distinguish sauger from walleye.
Sauger (Sander canadensis) possesses an elongated body with a pointed snout. They have a dark brown or olive-colored back with distinct dark spots and irregular saddle-like markings along their sides. Sauger also feature a large dark spot at the base of their spiny dorsal fin. They typically grow between 12 to 17 inches in length and can weigh up to 3 pounds.
The body of the sauger is cylindrical in shape and tapers towards the tail. They have a single dorsal fin and a deeply forked caudal fin. The anal fin is long and has multiple soft rays. Sauger have sharp teeth, which they use to catch and consume their prey.
The coloration of sauger helps them camouflage with their surroundings. The dark spots and irregular markings along their sides provide excellent disruptive camouflage, making them difficult to spot by predators or prey. This coloration also helps them blend in with the rocky or sandy bottoms of their habitat.
Walleye (Sander vitreus) share a similar body shape with sauger, characterized by an elongated form and a pointed snout. However, walleye have a more golden or olive-colored back and sides, often accompanied by a mottled pattern. They have a white belly and a distinct white tip on the lower lobe of their caudal fin. Walleye can reach lengths of 20 to 30 inches and can weigh up to 10 pounds or more.
The body of the walleye is also cylindrical, but it is more robust compared to sauger. They have two dorsal fins, the first being spiny and the second being soft. The caudal fin is deeply forked, similar to sauger. Walleye have large, glassy eyes that have a reflective layer called the tapetum lucidum, which enhances their vision in low-light conditions.
The coloration of walleye is highly variable and can be influenced by factors such as habitat, water clarity, and age. Their golden or olive-colored back provides effective camouflage in a variety of environments. The distinct white tip on the lower lobe of the caudal fin is a distinguishing feature of walleye.
Overall, both sauger and walleye have sleek bodies, pointed snouts, and similar fin structures. However, the differences in coloration and markings, such as the dark spots and saddle-like patterns of sauger and the white tip on the caudal fin of walleye, help differentiate these two species.
Sauger are primarily freshwater fish that inhabit rivers and streams in North America. They have specific habitat preferences that contribute to their distribution.
Sauger are often found in areas with moderate to fast currents. They are well-adapted to habitats with flowing water and are capable of maintaining their position in the current using their streamlined bodies. Sauger are commonly associated with structures such as submerged rocks, logs, bridge piers, and other submerged debris.
Regarding substrate preference, sauger are typically found in areas with sandy or gravelly bottoms. These types of substrates provide suitable spawning grounds for sauger and offer hiding places for their prey. They rely on camouflage to ambush their prey, and the sandy or gravelly bottoms blend well with their coloration.
Sauger are known to inhabit a range of depths within rivers and streams. They can be found in shallow areas near the shorelines as well as in deeper pools or areas with deeper water channels. Sauger also exhibit seasonal movements, often moving to deeper areas during winter and transitioning to shallower habitats during spring and summer.
Walleye have a broader habitat range compared to sauger. They are found in various freshwater environments across North America, including lakes, rivers, reservoirs, and even some brackish estuaries.
Walleye are adaptable to different water conditions, but they do have certain habitat preferences. They are commonly found in lakes and reservoirs with clear or moderately turbid waters. Walleye are known to inhabit areas with gravel, rocky bottoms, or submerged structures such as points, drop-offs, and weed beds.
One of the key factors in walleye habitat selection is water clarity. They prefer environments with good visibility, which allows them to effectively hunt for prey. In lakes, walleye often inhabit the deeper parts during the day and move to shallower areas during low-light conditions, such as dusk and dawn, for feeding.
In rivers, walleye can be found in stretches with slower currents, such as pools, eddies, and areas near submerged structures. They take advantage of these areas to conserve energy while waiting for suitable prey to pass by. Walleye are also known to migrate within river systems, moving upstream or downstream depending on the availability of food and spawning requirements.
Overall, while sauger have a preference for moderate to fast-flowing rivers with sandy or gravelly bottoms, walleye are more adaptable and can be found in a variety of freshwater habitats, including lakes, rivers, and reservoirs, with a preference for clear or moderately turbid waters and areas with rocky or gravelly substrates.
Sauger exhibit certain behavioral traits that are unique to their species. Understanding their behavior is important for anglers and researchers studying their ecology. Here are some notable behavioral characteristics of sauger:
- Nocturnal Feeding: Sauger are known to be more active and feed predominantly during low-light conditions, such as dusk and dawn. They have excellent low-light vision, which gives them a competitive advantage in locating and ambushing their prey during these times.
- Ambush Predators: Sauger are ambush predators, relying on their excellent camouflage to blend in with their surroundings. They often lie in wait near submerged structures, such as rocks or logs, where they can hide and wait for unsuspecting prey to swim by. Once their prey is within striking range, sauger exhibit quick and decisive movements to capture their target.
- Structure-Oriented: Sauger have a strong affinity for submerged structures in their habitat. These structures provide shelter, hiding places, and ambush points for sauger. They are frequently found near rocky areas, bridge piers, fallen trees, and other submerged debris. Sauger use these structures to break up the current and create eddies where prey fish gather.
- Seasonal Movements: Sauger exhibit seasonal movements within their habitat. During colder months or winter, sauger tend to move to deeper areas with slower currents to conserve energy. As the water warms up in spring and summer, they move to shallower areas near shorelines or in tributaries for spawning and feeding.
- Solitary Behavior: Sauger are generally solitary fish. They are known to be territorial and tend to establish their own territories within their habitat. They can be aggressive towards other sauger that intrude into their territory, especially during the spawning season.
Walleye also display distinctive behaviors that contribute to their success as predatory fish. Here are some key behavioral traits of walleye:
- Low-Light Feeding: Similar to sauger, walleye are well adapted to low-light conditions and are most active during dusk, dawn, and at night. Their eyes have a reflective layer called the tapetum lucidum, which enhances their vision in dim light, giving them a significant advantage over their prey during these periods.
- Patience and Stalking: Walleye are known for their patience and stalking behavior. They often move slowly and deliberately, closely observing their surroundings and waiting for the opportune moment to strike. This behavior allows them to conserve energy and efficiently capture their prey.
- Selective Feeding: Walleye have a highly selective feeding behavior. They often target specific prey species, such as perch, shiners, and minnows, based on availability and preference. They use their keen vision and lateral line sensory system to detect and track their preferred prey.
- Suspended Prey: Walleye are skilled at feeding on prey that are suspended in the water column. They can adjust their swimming depth and position themselves at the same level as their prey, allowing them to strike with precision. This behavior is particularly advantageous when targeting schools of baitfish.
- Schooling Behavior: While walleye are primarily solitary fish, they can exhibit schooling behavior, especially during certain times of the year, such as spawning or when foraging on concentrated prey. Schooling provides benefits in terms of increased foraging efficiency, predator protection, and reproductive success.
Sauger (Sander canadensis) are primarily piscivorous, meaning they primarily feed on other fish. Their diet consists of small fish species, including shad, minnows, and yellow perch. Sauger are opportunistic predators and will take advantage of any suitable prey that comes within their striking range. They have a voracious appetite and are known for their aggressive feeding behavior.
In addition to fish, sauger may also consume a variety of other aquatic organisms. They are known to feed on insects, crayfish, and other small invertebrates. Sauger use their sharp teeth and swift striking ability to capture and consume their prey. They lie in wait, often near submerged structures or areas of higher prey density, and ambush their targets with lightning-fast precision.
Walleye (Sander vitreus) also exhibit piscivorous feeding habits, but they have a more diverse diet compared to sauger. Walleye primarily feed on small fish species, including perch, shiners, shad, and other minnows. They are known for their ability to locate and target prey, especially in low-light conditions.
One of the distinguishing characteristics of walleye is their exceptional night vision. They possess a reflective layer behind their retina called the tapetum lucidum, which enhances their vision in low-light environments. This adaptation allows walleye to effectively hunt during dusk, dawn, and in murky waters.
In addition to fish, walleye also consume insects, crayfish, and other aquatic invertebrates. They are known to prey on aquatic insects such as mayflies and leeches. Walleye use a combination of visual cues and lateral line sensing to detect and capture their prey.
Both sauger and walleye are skilled predators with a preference for small fish. However, walleye have a wider range of prey options and possess specialized adaptations that enhance their hunting capabilities, particularly in low-light conditions.
Sauger (Sander canadensis) have a unique reproductive behavior. They typically spawn during the early spring when water temperatures rise to a certain threshold. Sauger prefer shallow, fast-flowing areas of rivers or streams for their spawning activities.
During spawning, the female sauger releases her eggs into the water, while the male sauger releases sperm to fertilize the eggs externally. Sauger eggs are adhesive, meaning they attach to submerged vegetation or rocks until they hatch. The male sauger plays an active role in guarding the eggs, defending them against potential threats and ensuring their safety.
After the eggs hatch, sauger larvae, known as fry, drift downstream with the current. They seek suitable habitat, such as areas with slower currents and abundant food sources, where they can grow and develop. As the fry grow, they gradually move to deeper waters, where they continue their development and transition into adulthood.
Walleye (Sander vitreus) also have a distinctive spawning behavior. They typically spawn during the early spring, usually when water temperatures reach a specific range. Walleye are known to spawn in specific areas, including rocky or gravelly areas in rivers or shoals in lakes.
Similar to sauger, walleye exhibit external fertilization, where the female releases her eggs into the water, and the male simultaneously releases sperm to fertilize the eggs. Walleye eggs are also adhesive, attaching to submerged surfaces, such as rocks, logs, or vegetation.
After the fertilization process, the eggs develop and hatch within a couple of weeks, depending on the water temperature. The newly hatched walleye larvae stay close to the spawning grounds, utilizing the abundant food resources and suitable habitat. As they grow and mature, they gradually move to deeper waters and expand their range.
Both sauger and walleye exhibit similar spawning behaviors, with external fertilization and adhesive eggs. However, their habitat preferences for spawning may differ slightly, with sauger favoring fast-flowing areas of rivers or streams, while walleye prefer rocky or gravelly areas in rivers or shoals in lakes. The parental care provided by male sauger in guarding the eggs until they hatch is a notable behavior specific to sauger.
What is a Hybrid Walleye?
A hybrid walleye, also known as a “wallyeye” or “saugeye,” is a crossbreed between a walleye and a sauger. These hybrids are typically produced through controlled breeding in fish hatcheries.
Hybridization between walleye and sauger is achieved by crossing the eggs of a female walleye with the sperm of a male sauger or vice versa. The resulting offspring exhibit a combination of characteristics from both parent species.
The purpose of producing hybrid walleye is often to enhance certain traits desirable for recreational fishing, such as fast growth rates, increased resistance to diseases, or improved survival rates in specific environments. Hybrids may also exhibit hybrid vigor, which can result in enhanced performance and adaptability compared to the parent species.
Hybrid walleye often display a mix of physical traits from both walleye and sauger. They may have the distinct dark blotches or saddle markings of walleye along with the vertical bars characteristic of sauger. However, the appearance of hybrid walleye can vary depending on the specific genetics of the parent fish.
Hybrid walleye are typically produced and stocked in specific bodies of water by fisheries management agencies or private hatcheries. They are not naturally occurring fish and do not reproduce naturally. The intention behind stocking hybrid walleye is to provide anglers with opportunities to catch fish that possess desirable traits and can contribute to sustainable recreational fisheries.
Culinary Uses and Taste Comparison
Both sauger and walleye are highly regarded for their culinary value. Their firm, white flesh and mild flavor make them popular choices for cooking. Here are some common culinary uses for sauger and walleye:
- Pan-Frying: Sauger and walleye fillets are often pan-fried to create a crispy, golden crust while maintaining the delicate texture of the flesh. They can be seasoned with a variety of herbs and spices or coated with breading for added flavor and texture.
- Baking: Sauger and walleye fillets can be baked in the oven, either on their own or as part of a recipe. Baking helps retain the natural moisture of the fish and allows for the incorporation of various marinades, sauces, or toppings.
- Grilling: Grilling is another popular method of preparing sauger and walleye. The high heat of the grill imparts a smoky flavor to the fish while keeping the flesh moist and tender. Grilled sauger and walleye can be served as fillets, kabobs, or whole fish.
- Fish Tacos: Sauger and walleye make excellent choices for fish tacos. The flaky texture of the fish pairs well with various toppings, such as fresh salsa, avocado, shredded lettuce, and a squeeze of lime juice.
- Fish Chowder or Soup: The firm flesh of sauger and walleye holds up well in soups and chowders. Their mild flavor complements the rich and comforting qualities of these dishes.
When it comes to taste, sauger and walleye share many similarities due to their close relation and comparable diet. However, some subtle differences can be detected:
- Sauger: Sauger has a mild, slightly sweet flavor with a hint of nuttiness. The meat is tender and delicate, with a texture that is often described as flaky. Sauger’s flavor profile is often compared to that of walleye but may be slightly milder.
- Walleye: Walleye is highly regarded for its delicate flavor and excellent eating qualities. Its flesh is tender, flaky, and almost buttery in texture. Walleye has a slightly sweet taste with a subtle earthiness that sets it apart from other freshwater fish.
Both sauger and walleye are known for their ability to take on flavors from seasonings and marinades, making them versatile for various culinary preparations. Their mild taste allows them to pair well with a wide range of ingredients and cooking styles.
It’s worth noting that the taste and flavor of sauger and walleye can also be influenced by factors such as the water quality and the diet of the fish. Fish caught from different regions may exhibit slight variations in taste, adding to the intrigue and diversity of culinary experiences.
Overall, whether you choose sauger or walleye for your culinary endeavors, you can expect a delectable meal characterized by delicate flavors, moist flesh, and a delightful eating experience.
Conservation Status and Regulations
Conservation efforts and regulations play a crucial role in maintaining healthy populations of sauger and walleye and ensuring sustainable fisheries. Here is an overview of the conservation status and regulations associated with these fish:
Sauger Conservation Status
The conservation status of sauger varies depending on the specific region or jurisdiction. In general, sauger populations are considered stable, but there are localized concerns in some areas due to habitat degradation, pollution, and overfishing.
To protect sauger populations and promote their conservation, various measures have been implemented, including:
- Fishing Regulations: Fishing regulations are in place to manage sauger populations sustainably. These regulations may include size limits, bag limits (the number of fish that can be harvested per angler), and closed seasons to protect spawning individuals.
- Habitat Restoration: Efforts are underway to restore and enhance sauger habitat, including the restoration of spawning areas, the creation of fish passage structures, and the protection of critical habitats.
- Water Quality Management: Ensuring good water quality is crucial for the survival and well-being of sauger. Pollution control measures, such as reducing nutrient runoff and limiting industrial pollutants, help maintain suitable habitat conditions for sauger populations.
Walleye Conservation Status
Walleye populations are generally healthy across their range, although localized concerns may exist in certain areas due to habitat degradation, pollution, and overfishing.
To protect and sustain walleye populations, various conservation measures and regulations have been implemented, including:
- Fishing Regulations: Fishing regulations are in place to manage walleye populations sustainably. These regulations may include size limits, bag limits, and closed seasons to protect spawning individuals and ensure the long-term viability of the fishery.
- Stocking Programs: In some regions, walleye stocking programs are implemented to enhance populations or reintroduce walleye into areas where they have declined or been extirpated. These programs involve releasing hatchery-raised walleye fry or fingerlings into suitable habitats.
- Habitat Conservation: Protecting and restoring walleye habitats is essential for their long-term survival. Efforts focus on habitat conservation, including the preservation of spawning areas, the improvement of water quality, and the enhancement of critical habitats such as weed beds, reefs, and submerged structures.
- Research and Monitoring: Ongoing research and monitoring programs help assess the status of walleye populations, track population trends, and identify potential threats. This information is crucial for informed management decisions and conservation strategies.
Anglers and recreational fishers also play a significant role in walleye conservation by practicing responsible fishing practices, adhering to fishing regulations, and releasing undersized or non-targeted fish.
Individuals need to stay updated on local fishing regulations and conservation initiatives in their respective areas to ensure the sustainable management of sauger and walleye populations for future generations to enjoy.
Both sauger and walleye are popular targets for anglers due to their sporting qualities and delicious flesh. Here are some common fishing techniques used to catch sauger and walleye:
Jigging is a widely employed technique for targeting sauger and walleye. It involves using a jig, which is a weighted hook with a variety of soft plastic or live bait options. Anglers cast the jig and allow it to sink to the desired depth before imparting an erratic or subtle jigging motion to attract the fish. Jigging can be effective in both shallow and deep water, particularly around submerged structures and drop-offs.
Trolling is a popular technique for covering large areas of water to locate and catch sauger and walleye. Anglers use a boat to slowly tow one or more lines behind them, typically using crankbaits or spinner rigs. Trolling allows for precise depth control by using various diving depths of lures or adding weights to the line. It is an effective method for targeting walleye and sauger in open water, especially in larger bodies such as lakes and reservoirs.
Drifting involves allowing the boat to move naturally with the current or wind while presenting bait or lures. Anglers drift along likely fishing spots, such as drop-offs, weed edges, or other productive areas. Common bait choices for drifting include live minnows or nightcrawlers, rigged on a jighead or spinner rig. Drifting can be an effective technique for targeting sauger and walleye in rivers and lakes with moderate currents.
Casting is a versatile technique that can be effective for sauger and walleye fishing, particularly in shallower areas near shorelines, structures, or weed beds. Anglers cast and retrieve various lures, such as crankbaits, jerkbaits, or soft plastic baits, to mimic the movement of prey fish. By varying the speed and action of the retrieve, anglers can entice sauger and walleye to strike. Casting is popular in both rivers and lakes, especially during low-light conditions or when fish are actively feeding near the surface.
Night fishing for sauger and walleye can be highly productive, as these fish are known to be more active during low-light periods. Many anglers target sauger and walleye during dusk, dawn, and throughout the night using techniques such as casting, trolling, or jigging. Glow-in-the-dark lures or bait options are often utilized to increase visibility in the dark. Fishing at night can be particularly successful in areas with submerged structures or around lighted docks and piers.
Popular Fishing Destinations
Sauger and walleye can be found in various bodies of water across North America, providing anglers with numerous popular fishing destinations. Here are some well-known locations for targeting sauger and walleye:
Mississippi River (United States)
The Mississippi River is renowned for its sauger and walleye fishery. Stretching through multiple states, including Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri, the Mississippi River offers ample opportunities for anglers. Popular sections of the river for sauger and walleye fishing include Lake Pepin, Pool 4 (above Lock and Dam 4), Pool 8 (above Lock and Dam 8), and Pool 9 (above Lock and Dam 9).
Great Lakes (United States and Canada)
The Great Lakes, including Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, and Lake Ontario, provide exceptional fishing for sauger and walleye. These expansive bodies of water offer diverse habitats and ample forage, resulting in healthy populations of these fish. Popular fishing spots in the Great Lakes region include Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), Green Bay (Lake Michigan), and the eastern basin of Lake Erie.
Lake Winnipeg (Canada)
Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba, Canada, is famous for its trophy walleye fishery. The lake offers excellent opportunities for anglers to target large walleye, particularly during the spring and fall seasons. The Narrows and the South Basin are popular areas known for producing trophy-sized walleye.
Rainy Lake (United States and Canada)
Straddling the border between Minnesota (United States) and Ontario (Canada), Rainy Lake is a prime destination for sauger and walleye fishing. The lake’s structure, including numerous reefs, points, and islands, provides ideal habitat for these fish. Anglers can target sauger and walleye throughout the year, with peak fishing periods in spring, early summer, and fall.
Lake of the Woods (United States and Canada)
Located between Minnesota, Ontario, and Manitoba, Lake of the Woods is a renowned multi-species fishery, offering exceptional opportunities for sauger and walleye fishing. With its vast expanse of water and abundant structure, anglers can explore numerous bays, reefs, and channels to target these prized fish.
These are just a few examples of popular fishing destinations for sauger and walleye. However, there are countless other lakes, rivers, and reservoirs throughout North America that provide excellent opportunities to pursue these fish. Local fishing guides, bait shops, and online resources can provide additional information and recommendations for specific regions and seasons.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Do Walleye Eat Sauger?
Yes, walleye are known to feed on sauger. Both species have similar diets, primarily consisting of small fish, insects, and other aquatic organisms. In areas where walleye and sauger coexist, it is not uncommon for walleye to prey on sauger, especially when the opportunity arises. Both fish exhibit predatory behavior and compete for similar food resources.
What Is the World Record for Walleye?
The current world record for walleye stands at 22 pounds 11 ounces (10.29 kg). The record-setting walleye was caught by Mabry Harper on May 4, 1960, from Old Hickory Lake in Tennessee, United States. This impressive catch remains the benchmark for anglers seeking to land a record-breaking walleye.
What Is the Biggest Sauger Ever Caught?
The largest recorded sauger weighed 8 pounds 12 ounces (3.97 kg). This specimen was caught by Robert A. Miller from the Tennessee River in Decatur, Alabama, on March 10, 1973. This impressive sauger remains a notable catch, showcasing the potential size that these fish can reach under optimal conditions.
Do Walleye and Sauger Taste the Same?
Walleye and sauger share many similarities in terms of taste and texture. Both fish have firm, white flesh with a mild flavor that is highly regarded by anglers and seafood enthusiasts. The taste of sauger is often compared to that of walleye, but some individuals note that sauger may have a slightly milder flavor. Ultimately, the taste of these fish can be influenced by various factors, including habitat, diet, and cooking preparation, but they are generally considered to be delicious table fare.
In conclusion, sauger and walleye may appear similar at first glance, but they have distinct features that set them apart. From their physical characteristics to their habitat preferences and feeding habits, these two fish exhibit subtle differences. Understanding these differences is crucial for anglers, conservationists, and fish enthusiasts to ensure proper identification and conservation efforts. Whether you’re an angler looking for a thrilling fishing experience or a culinary enthusiast seeking a delicious meal, both sauger and walleye offer unique qualities that make them fascinating species to explore and appreciate.
- FishBase: Sander canadensis
- FishBase: Sander vitreus
- Minnesota Department of Natural Resources: Sauger
- Minnesota Department of Natural Resources: Walley
- “Walleye: Discover how to identify and tips to catch” by Takemefishing.org. https://www.takemefishing.org/fish-species/walleye/
- “Sauger: Discover how to identify and tips to catch” by Takemefishing.org. https://www.takemefishing.org/fish-species/sauger/
- Walleye Fishing: Tips, Techniques, and Destinations” by Outdoor Life. https://www.outdoorlife.com/articles/hunting/2015/03/fishing-skills-20-tips-walleyes/
- “Walleye Fishing: Species info, charters and destinations” by FishingBooker Blog. https://fishingbooker.com/fish/walleye